In simple, Arya Samaj is a group of Arya people working for the betterment of humanity on the basis of Truth (Satya).
Who are the Aryas ?
People with good and righteous conduct along with benevolent and noble qualities are termed as Aryas.
What does Sarvabhom represents in the above statement ?
What is represented by the above word (Sarvabhom) is that Arya Samaj is not limited to a particular religion, race, colour of the skin, country etc. In fact, anyone who is willing to work towards improving his/her conduct, thinking, character, inline with the Arya Samaj's principles and is ready to accept the teachings of the Rishis with reasoning can become Arya Samaji.
What does the "basis of truth (Satya)" means in the above statement ?
The definition of Satya (by means of five tests as explained by Maharishi Dayanand) has been explained in the Karma section of the website. It is imperative for an Arya Samaji to base his/her life on Satya. An Arya Samaj operating by compromising Satya is only a social club with the name of Arya Samaj.
The first principle of Arya Samaj States that : "Sab Satya Vidhya or jo padarth Vidhya se jaane jate hai un sabka adi mool Parmeshwar hai". God is the efficient cause of all Satya knowledge and all that is known through knowledge.
What is the meaning of efficient cause ?
Efficient cause is one by whose making something comes into effect and nothing comes into effect without its making. A simple example is that by the making of God the formless and ever present Prakriti takes form or is made into worlds (e.g. cosmos world, atmosphere world etc).
What is Vidhya ?
Vidhya is termed as the knowledge by which the yatharth (the true way of it) knowledge of a padarth (product, element etc.) is known or by which a product or element etc. are known in their true form along with its properties. Few quotes from Maharishi Dayanand's granths are as follows:
"Jisse padarth ko yathawat jankaar nyaya yukta karm kiye javen vah Vidhya or jisse kisi padarth ka yathawat jnana na hokar anyaya roop karm kiye jayen vah Avidya kahati hai" - Vyavahar Bhanu
"Jisse padarthon ka yatharth swaroop bodh howey vah Vidhya kahati hai" - Satyarth Prakash, Samullas
What can be termed as Satya Vidhya ?
Satya Vidhya is the Vidhya which is unchangable i.e. the knowledge provided by the almighty to the humans which is for the entire humanity irrespective of language, location, faith, religion etc.
The second principle of Arya Samaj States that : "Ishwar sachidanand swaroop, nirakaar, sarvashaktimaan, nyayakari, dayalu, ajanma, anant, nirvikaar, anadi, anupam, sarvadhaar, sarveshwar, sarvayapak, sarvantaryami, ajar, amar, abhay, nitya, pavitra aur srishtikarta hai. Usi ki upasana karni yogya hai".
God is (Sachidanand) existent, intelligent and blissful. He is (Nirakaar) formless, (Sarvashaktimaan) all powerful, (Sarvajya) omniscient, (Nyayakari) just, (Dayalu) merciful, (Ajanma) unborn, (Anant) endless, (Nirvikaar) unchangeable & faultless, (Anadi) beginning-less, (Anupam) unequalled, (Sarvadhar) the support of all, (Sarveshwar) the master of all, (Sarvayapak) omnipresent, (Sarvantaryami) immanent, (Ajar) un-aging, (Amar) immortal, (Abhay) fearless, (Nitya) eternal, and (Pavitra) holy, and (Srishtikarta) the maker of all. He alone is worthy of being worshipped.
Since God is all powerful and merciful, He should be able to forgive our wrong doings thus preventing us from suffering ?
God is all powerful as he alone is capable of creating the world/s from the material cause or Prakriti and is the only one to give Souls the fruit of their deeds. Even though God is all powerful, he cannot go against the Godly qualities e.g. God can not die or can not become ignorant as he is omniscient. Similarly, to forgive us for our misdeeds just because we have prayed and asked for forgiveness will be unjust e.g. forgiving a thief every time he/she prays without giving the fruit of his/her deeds will encourage him/her to commit the same sin or crime since the previous ones are forgiven. This will be unjust as the thief is inflicting suffering on the people whom he/she robs. This will also make God prejudiced if he stops giving the fruits of misdeeds by accepting the bribe of worship or prayer.
If God does not forgive our sins then what is the use of Upasana or worship ?
The answer to this has been given in the Upasana section of this website. Please read it there.
The third principle of Arya Samaj States that : "Ved sab satya vidhyon ka pustak hai, Ved ka padna - padana aur sunna - sunana sab Aryon ka param Dharm hai".
The Vedas are the scriptures of all true (Satya) knowledge. It is the paramount duty of all Aryas to read them, teach them, recite them and to hear them being read.